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83 Results Found.
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Cardiology (Heart Care) Treatment - Angiogram

Title: Angiogram


Coronary angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through your heart.

How the test is performed

Coronary angiography is usually done in conjunction with cardiac catheterization. Before the test starts, you will be given a mild sedative to help you relax. An area of your body, usually the arm or groin, is cleaned and numbed with a local numbing medicine (anesthetic). A thin hollow tube called a catheter is placed through an artery and carefully moved up into the heart. X-ray images help the doctor position the catheter.

Once the catheter is in place, dye (contrast material) is injected into catheter. X-ray images are taken to see how the dye moves through the artery. The dye helps highlight any blockages in blood flow.

How to Prepare for the Test?

You should not eat or drink anything for 8 hours before the test starts. You may need to stay in the hospital the night before the test. Otherwise, you will check in to the hospital the morning of the test. You will wear a hospital gown. You must sign a consent form before the test. Your health care provider will explain the procedure and its risks.

Tell your doctor if you are allergic to seafood, if you have had a bad reaction to contrast material in the past, if you are taking Viagra, or if you might be pregnant.

How you will feel?


The procedure may last from 1 to several hours. You are awake during the test. You may feel some pressure at the site where the catheter is inserted. Occasionally, a flushing sensation occurs after the dye is injected. After the test, the catheter is removed. You might feel a firm pressure at the insertion site, used to prevent bleeding. If the catheter is placed in your groin, you will usually be asked to lie flat on your back for a few hours after the test to avoid bleeding. This may cause some mild back discomfort.

Why the Test is performed?


Coronary angiography is done to find a blockage in the coronary arteries, which can lead to heart attack. It may be done if you have unstable angina, atypical chest pain, aortic stenosis, or unexplained heart failure.



There is a normal supply of blood to the heart and no blockages. An abnormal result may mean you have a blocked artery. The test can show how many coronary arteries are blocked, where they are blocked, and the severity of the blockage(s).

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Cardiology (Heart Care) Treatment - Cardiology

Title: Cardiology


Cardiology is that branch of medicine which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases. Cardiovascular disease is characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiac Procedure Perfomed are

    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
    Open Heart Surgery
    Mitral-Valve Repair
    Valve replacement Surgery
    Aortic Aneurysm

Cost Savings:
Cardiology Approximate Cost Elsewhere - in USD Approximate Cost INDIA - IN USD
Open Heart Surgery 40000 - 120000 5000 - 9000
Angiography 3500 - 4500 350 - 500
Angioplasty 18000 - 20000 2100 - 2700
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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery

Title: Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery


Rotator cuff repair is a type of surgery to fix a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be done with a large ("open") incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses small button-hole sized incisions.


The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that form a cuff over the shoulder. These muscles and tendons hold the arm in its "ball and socket" joint and help the shoulder to rotate. The role of the tendons is to hold the powerful shoulder muscles to the shoulder and arm bones. The tendons can be torn from overuse or injury.

Your doctor will first check your shoulder with a small camera (arthroscope) to look at the tear and determine if it can be fixed. The arthroscope is inserted into the shoulder through a small poke-hole. The camera is connected to a video monitor. The surgeon looks around the entire joint to check the cartilage, tendons, and ligaments of your shoulder.

After evaluating the shoulder joint, the surgeon places the camera in the space above the rotator cuff tendons, called the subacromial space. The surgeon can check the area above the rotator cuff, clean out inflamed or damaged tissue, and remove a bone spur (subacromial spur). If a tear is going to be fixed, the surgeon may perform the surgery with a larger, open incision. Other surgeons use the arthroscope and 1 to 3 additional small poke-holes or smaller incisions to perform the surgery. The additional small incisions allow the surgeon to insert other instruments to repair damaged tissue.

The goal is to attach the tendon back to the bone where it tore off. The tendon is attached with sutures. Small rivets (called suture anchors) are often used to help attach the tendon to the bone. The suture anchors can be made of metal or plastic, and do not need to be removed. At the end of the surgery, the incisions are closed, and a dressing is applied. If arthroscopy was performed, most surgeons take pictures of the procedure from the video monitor to show you what was found and what was done.

Why the Procedure is performed?
Rotator cuff repair may be recommended for shoulder problems such as:

    Pain, especially using the arm overhead
    A bone spur or inflammation around the rotator cuff


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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair

Title: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair


Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries involves reconstructing or repairing the ACL.

ACL reconstruction surgery uses a graft to replace the ligament. The most common grafts are auto grafts using part of your own body, such as the tendon of the kneecap (patellar tendon) or one of the hamstring tendons. Other good choices include allograft tissue, which is donor material.
In repair surgery, the ends of the torn ligament are sewn back together.

Most ACL surgery is done by reconstructing the ACL because reconstruction gives better results than repair surgery. Repair surgery generally is only used in the case of an avulsion fracture (a separation of the ligament and a piece of the bone from the rest of the bone). In this case, the bone fragment connected to the ACL is reattached to the bone.

ACL surgery is done by making small incisions in the knee and inserting instruments for surgery through these incisions (arthroscopic surgery) or by cutting a large incision in the knee (open surgery).ACL surgeries are usually done by orthopedic surgeons.

Arthroscopic surgery

Many orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopic surgery rather than open surgery for ACL injuries because:

    It is easy to see and work on the knee structures.
    It uses smaller incisions than open surgery.
    It can be done at the same time as diagnostic arthroscopy (using arthroscopy to determine the injury or damage to the knee).
    It may have fewer risks than open surgery.
    Rehabilitation is often faster after arthroscopy than after open surgery

Arthroscopic surgery is performed under spinal or general anesthesia.

During arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, the surgeon makes several small incisions-usually two or three-around the knee. Sterile saline (salt) solution is pumped into the knee through one incision to expand it and to wash blood from the area. This allows the health professional to see the knee structures more clearly.

The surgeon inserts an arthroscope into one of the other incisions. A camera at the end of the arthroscope transmits pictures from inside the knee to a TV monitor in the operating room.

Surgical drills are inserted through other small incisions. The surgeon drills small holes into the upper and lower leg bones where these bones come close together at the knee joint. The holes form tunnels through which the graft will be anchored.

The surgeon will take the autograft (replacement tissue) at this point. If it comes from the knee, it will include two small pieces of bone called "bone blocks" on both ends. One piece of bone is taken from the kneecap and the other piece is taken from a part of the lower leg bone near the knee joint. If the autograft comes from the hamstring, bone blocks are not taken. The graft may also be taken from a deceased donor (allograft).

The graft is pulled through the two tunnels that were drilled in the upper and lower leg bones. The surgeon secures the graft with screws or staples and will close the incisions with stitches or tape. A temporary surgical drain may be put in place. The knee is bandaged, and you are taken to the recovery room for 2 to 3 hours. During ACL surgery, the surgeon may repair other injured parts of the knee as well, such as ligaments, cartilage, or broken bones.

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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Hip Resurfacing Surgery

Title: Hip Resurfacing Surgery


The natural hip is a ball and socket joint. The head of the femur (thighbone) moves in a socket in the pelvis called the acetabulum. The joint is held together by tendons, ligaments and muscles. When the hip joint wears out it is called osteoarthritis. An osteoarthritic hip is usually stiff and painful. One possible treatment is the replacement of

In hip resurfacing, the hip joint is relined rather than replaced. The head and neck of the femur are preserved. The worn surfaces of the head and socket are carefully machined away with precision instruments. The joint is then lined with a metal covering for the head and socket. The hip resurfacing implant has three key advantages: as follows

Bone Conservation
One of the major problems of revision hip surgery (where a worn out or loose hip implant has to be changed to another one) is the loss of bone which necessitates the use of larger and longer hip stems. In hip resurfacing the head and neck are preserved. The worn surface and only 3–4 mm of bone below it are removed. This allows the patients to keep as much of their own hip as possible for as long as possible. Therefore if the resurfacing should fail for any reason the head and neck can be removed and a standard total hip replacement can be performed.

Low Wear Bearing
One of the major advantages of hip resurfacing is the metal-on-metal bearing. The precision-engineered components are made of a hard, biocompatible alloy (which consists mainly of cobalt and chromium) which produces very low rates of wear. The bearing used in Durom Hip Resurfacing is known as Metasul® Metal-on-Metal Tribological Solution. The Metasul bearing has been in clinical use since 1988 and over 250,000 hips with these bearings have been implanted worldwide. This particular bearing is used solely as an example. Please contact your doctor for your specific bearing used.

Anatomic Sized Bearing
In a resurfaced hip the femoral head is similar in size to the natural hip. In conventional total hip replacement the average head size is smaller than the natural hip. The advantage of a larger head size is a greater range of movement of the hip and increased stability, in other words less chance of it coming out of joint (dislocating).

The details of the operation will be discussed with your orthopaedic surgeon in detail prior to the operation itself. However, in general, your treatment will progress along the following lines. Preliminary tests will be needed a few weeks in advance of the surgery to determine whether you are ready for surgery and whether any special precautions may be required. The risk associated with hip resurfacing surgery is similar to that of a conventional operation; the same is true with regard to the risk of complications. The incision for a hip surface replacement may be little longer than that required for a conventional hip joint replacement although the procedure should take a similar amount of time.

In most cases, the post-surgery recovery time is shorter than for a conventional hip replacement. In the first few weeks after the operation, you will take part in a rehabilitation program. You will be advised on post-surgery activities by your orthopaedic surgeon but usually patients will be able to climb stairs again soon with the use of a walking aid. Generally speaking, you should be relatively independent after about 11⁄2 months and, about 3 months after surgery, most patients return to everyday activities. Many patients consider themselves cured after about one year.

Hip resurfacing is dependant on your age, medical conditions and the X-rays of your hip. Your orthopaedic surgeon will advise you as to whether your hip can be resurfaced. Individual results may vary. Your results will depend upon your personal circumstances. This information is intended to provide an overview of hip resurfacing surgery. Review this information with your doctor.

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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Hip Replacement Surgery

Title: Hip Replacement Surgery


Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part of the hip joint with an artificial device (a prosthesis). The hip is a ball and socket joint, linking the "ball" at the head of the thigh bone (femur) with the cup-shaped "socket" in the pelvic bone. A total hip prosthesis is surgically implanted to replace the damaged bone within the hip joint.

The total hip prosthesis consists of three parts:

    A cup that replaces your hip socket. The cup is usually plastic, although some centers are trying other materials like ceramic and metal.
    A metal or ceramic ball that will replace the fractured head of the thigh bone.
    A metal stem that is attached to the shaft of the bone to add stability to the prosthesis.

If the surgery is a "hemi-arthroplasty," the only bone replaced with a prosthetic device is the head of the femur. You will receive an extensive preoperative evaluation of your hip to determine if you are a candidate for a hip replacement procedure. Your health care provider will assess the degree of disability, impact on your lifestyle, and pre-existing medical conditions. The health care provider will also evaluate your heart and lung function.

The surgery will be performed using general or spinal anesthesia. The orthopedic surgeon makes an surgical cut, often over the buttocks, to expose the hip joint. The head of the thigh bone is removed and removed. Then, the hip socket is cleaned out and a tool called a reamer removes all of the remaining cartilage and arthritic bone.

The new socket is implanted, after which the metal stem is inserted into the thigh bone. The artificial components are fixed in place, sometimes with a special cement. The muscles and tendons are then replaced against the bones and the surgical cut is closed. You will return from surgery with a large dressing on the hip area. A small drainage tube will be placed during surgery to help drain excess fluids from the joint area. Many surgeons also place a knee immobilizer or special pillow between the legs in the operating room to prevent the hip from dislocating.

You will have moderate to severe pain after surgery. However, you will receive painkillers for the first day or more after surgery. Painkillers may be given through a vein ( intravenously, or IV) through the spinal cord (an epidural), or by way of a special patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device. The pain should gradually decrease, and by the third day after surgery, painkillersk, taken by mouth, may be sufficient to control your pain. Try to schedule your pain medications about 30 minutes before walking or changing position.

You will also return from surgery with several IV lines in place to provide fluids and nutrition. The IV will remain in place until you are drinking adequate amounts of fluids. If the procedure is elective (planned in advance rather than in response to an injury), you can donate blood several weeks prior to surgery to replace any blood lost during the procedure.

Sometimes, the blood that is drained from the wound during surgery is collected in a special sterile container to be reinfused through an IV after surgery. You will also return from surgery wearing special stockings or inflatable compression stockings, which are used to reduce your risk of developing blood clots. Blood clots are more common after leg surgery.

Start moving and walking early after surgery. On the first day after surgery, you should get out of bed to a chair. When in bed, perform ankle exercises frequently to prevent development of blood clots. You may be instructed on how to use a device called a spirometer, which shows how much air you breathe in at one time. You'll be shown how to gradually increase the depth of each breath you take, and to perform deep breathing and cough procedures to prevent pneumonia.

A Foley catheter may be inserted during surgery to monitor your kidney function and fluid level. It will be removed after surgery. You will be encouraged to try to walk to the bathroom with assistance.

Why it is performed?

Hip joint replacement is primarily done in people age 60 and older. The operation is usually not recommended for younger people because of the strain they can put on the artificial hip, causing it to fail prematurely.

The reasons for replacing the hip joint include:

    Fractures in the elderly of the neck of the femur (usually requires a hemi-arthroplasty)
    Hip joint tumors
    Severe arthritis pain that limits a person's ability to do the things they want to do

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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Knee Replacement

Title: Knee Replacement


Knee Replacement or Knee arthroplasty is a surgical procedure performed to relieve the pain and disability from arthritis. The operation is done while you are asleep and without pain (general anesthesia) or with a numbing medication put in your back (spinal or epidural anesthesia).The orthopedic surgeon makes a surgical cut over the affected knee. The kneecap (patella) is moved out of the way, and the ends of the thigh bone (femur) and shin bone (tibia) are cut to fit the prosthesis. The undersurface of the knee cap is cut to allow the surgeon to place an artificial piece.

There are now implants for men and women to account for differences in anatomy. It is not yet known whether these implants will last longer or perform better than non-gender-specific knee replacements. The two parts of the prosthesis are placed onto the ends of the femur, tibia, and undersurface of the patella using special bone cement. Usually, metal is used on the end of the femur, and plastic is used on the tibia and patella for the new knee surface. However, surgeons are now using newer surfaces, including metal on metal, ceramic on ceramic, or ceramic on plastic.

In some cases, a mini-surgical cut may be used to avoid cutting the tendon on the front of the knee. This may allow for faster, less painful recovery, but it has risks because of the difficulty of the surgery and the lack of a clear view for the surgeon. A foley catheter may be inserted during surgery to monitor the function of your kidneys and hydration level. This will be removed on the second or third day after surgery. You will be encouraged to try to walk to the bathroom with help.

Why this is performed?

Knee joint replacement may be recommended for:

  •     Arthritis of the knee and decreased knee function caused by arthritis
  •     Inability to sleep through the night because of knee pain
  •     Knee pain that hasn't responded to other therapy (including    medication,
  •     injections, and physical therapy for 6 months or more)
  •     Knee pain that limits or prevents activities
  •     Some tumors involving the knee

Knee joint replacement is usually not recommended for:

  •     Current knee infection
  •     Morbid obesity (over 300 pounds)
  •     Paralysis of the muscles in the front of the thigh (quadriceps)
  •     Poor skin cover around the knee
  •     Severe mental dysfunction
  •     Severe peripheral vascular disease or nerve problems (neuropathy)   that affect the knee
  •     Terminal disease (for example, cancer that has spread)
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Orthopedic Surgery Treatment - Brief Description

Title: Orthopedic Surgery


Orthopedics is a branch of Medicine deals with study, and treatment of the skeletal system (bones) , its joints, muscles and associated structures.

Orthopedic Surgeries Performed are,

  •     Knee Replacement
  •     Knee Arthroscopy
  •     Hip Replacement
  •     Hip Resurfacing
  •     Shoulder Replacement
  •     Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair
  •     Rotator Cuff Repair


Cost Savings:
Orthopedics Approximate Cost Elsewhere - in USD Approximate Cost INDIA - IN USD
Total Knee Replacement TKR 18000 - 30000 2500 - 3200
Hip Joint Replacement 18000 - 30000 2500 - 3200
Shoulder Replacement 18000 - 30000 2500 - 3200
Hip Resurfacing 19000 - 31000 2700 - 3000
Arthroscopy 8000 - 11000 1000 - 1200
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83 Results Found.
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